Well technically a files never gets deleted from your system.
Let me explain,
When you delete a file, Windows (and some other operating systems) removes the pointer and marks the sectors containing the file’s data as available. From the systems P.O.V the file is deleted, and Space is marked as free in your Hard drive.
This is the reason why you can recover your file from the sectors containing the data until windows actually writes new data over them
( Recuva is a good example of a recovery tool)
If you're wondering why the hell it just doesn't erase the files and get them over with ! well, it’s actually pretty simple.
Deleting a file’s pointer and marking its space as available is an extremely fast operation . In contrast, actually erasing a file by overwriting its data takes significantly longer.
For example , if you’re deleting a 10 GB file, that would be near-instantaneous . To actually erase the file’s contents, it may take several minutes – just as long as if you were writing 10 gigabytes of data to your hard drive.
To increase performance and save time, Windows and other operating systems don’t erase a file’s contents when it’s deleted.
When you delete something your computer just tells it to forget that part of the hard drive until something is written over it, you can use programs to retrieve deleted data so unless you have run like some shredder application that just keeps rewriting to the drive over and over it's still there.
Permanently deleted files go no where, those files are intact at the same location. Only the names of files are deleted on the Index and informed to show the space is empty on hard disk. When we add new file it is over written on the same location by changing the binary digits and updated index.
Depends on what you mean by " permanently ".
If you just told your operating system to delete a file, it's not permanently deleted. The data is not erased. Nor is it moved. Nothing happens to it at all. There's just no longer a marker in the table-of-content saying "There's a file on page 17".
If you permanently delete a file, the implication (to an IT expert) is that you've gone out of your way to make sure that data is not there any more. As in, you used a program that actually goes to where that file's data was and overwrites it quite a few times using random data, as well as marking it as no longer there.
Most file systems (including NTFS, which Windows uses) have what's called a File Allocation Table. This usually sits at the beginning of the drive and is like a Table of Content. It'll say "I have a file called FILE.TXT, it is this many bytes long, and it starts at this point on the harddrive".
It's a bit more complex than that, but we'll skip a bit just to say that it can say "This file is actually a folder and the following files are in it".
The recycle bin is pretty much a special folder. When you move a file to it, the data doesn't move at all (in fact, when you move a file anywhere on the harddrive it was originally on, the data doesn't move). The File Allocation Table just updates that the file is now within the new folder (in this case, the recycle bin).
When you empty the recycle bin, once again the data doesn't move or change at all. The file allocation fable merely updates to remove the reference to that file.
Here's a semi-unrelated interesting fact. In the Olden Days (I'm not sure if NTFS still does this) the way the file allocation table marked a file as deleted was changing the first character of the file name to a specific character. So instead of "FILE.TXT" it would be " ILE.TXT" (yes, that's a blank space). There were many utilities that could look through the file allocation table and allow you to 'fix' the filename - this would essentially undelete the file! Now, this obviously doesn't account for data being overwritten, but if you did it fast enough you were pretty safe.
When you first delete a file on a computer , it is moved to the computer's Recycle Bin, Trash, or something similar depending on your operating system. When something is sent to the Recycle Bin or Trash, the icon changes to indicate it contains files and if needed allows you to recover a deleted file .
Files are not erased when they are deleted even if a disk is formatted, it would stay there. You can take them back with using the right programs.
Files that are moved to the recycle bin (on PCs) or the trash can (on Macs) stay in those folders until the user empties the recycle bin or trash can . Once they have been deleted from those folders, they are still located in the hard drive and can be retrieved with the right software.
After recycle.bin, the file at last go to the doc template trash
the deletion process is simply removing the linkage to those files and breaking down the file into smaller bits, they remain as broken down bits in the storage system in form of 0s and 1s which are reset to be used again..
files on the computer will not be permanently deleted as long as we do not delete the files we delete in the recycle bin